This kit was designed and built with 3 major objectives:
• Increase performance, dependability and driveability of the Corvair.
• Completely reversible
• Cost effective
Background: Fuel injection has always been costly for the Corvairs mainly because of the Port injection requires costly welding and the manufacture and use of low production parts. The Throttle body was chosen for the dependability and simplicity and uses mostly GM main-line production parts to keep the price low and uses “tried and true” components for reliability. The dual throttle body has been used before, but was fragmented and used a costly computer to run. EFI Temp input was always a problem for Corvairs and due to the wild temp fluctuations of the Air-Cooled engine. We use a Water Temp Equivalent (WTE) method for the ECM to control and trim the engine’s operation. We hope you find this one of the most well thought out, economical and dependable kits ever produced for the Corvair and should provide years of trouble-free service. This EFI system is a DIY system with many pre-made/adapted parts to aid you in the successful installation of your system, but it relies on your skill and knowledge or Corvairs and EFI. If you doubt your abilities, hire an installer or friend/club member help you with this install.
Theory: Carbs and points that control the Corvair and all motors of that era are a compromise. The Carbs give the best fuel mixture at only certain times due the design. Distributors can’t compensate for Temp and use flying weights to control the timing… good, but again a compromise. Fuel Injection along with electronic timing applies the best fuel mixture and timing for that RPM, Load and Temp. Other sensors also trim the fuel and timing, but those are the basics.
What should I expect?: Ease of starting, good all around performance and better fuel economy. This will not make your worn out engine a good engine. It does not fix burned valves, leaking heads, cracked pistons, etc…. its fuel injection. It maximizes the amount of fuel and spark for the best all around performance and economy based on external factors which a traditional Carb and points can’t do. During initial cold starting the engine will run rich (emulating a choke) to aid in cold start and run.
Just because you can does not mean you should: Fuel Injection will allow you to start the engine and drive very soon after starting, even in cold weather. Today’s engines have close tolerances which allow them to run cold without damage. The Corvair engine was never designed to nor meet designed clearances until after its warm. Yes… you can drive your vehicle immediately after cranking, but is NOT advisable to do so until the engine has warmed and proper clearances have not been obtained.
What do I need/have to purchase that does not come with the kit:
1 ea External/External Fuel Pump
5/16″ fuel line from tank and fuel return line
Misc Bolts/Screws to meet customer desire
Laptop (Optional, but highly recommended)
Early Model (EM) vs Late Model (LM): 61-63 EM and low HP 64’s did not come with a Harmonic Balancer (HB). When a HB is used, you must also switch the rear engine mount to a 64 model for the belt to have sufficient space for a fan belt change. The timing wheel/harmonic balancer combination will not fit on the FC.
Removing Outer Carb Stud: Remove carb studs by “double nutting” and backing out the stud. You may need heat or pre-soaking with WD or other solvent ahead of time. Use caution and DO NOT BREAK THE STUD. If broken, this stud must be removed and fixed properly for good sealing of the TBI to Head adapter. Good sealing requires both bolts be secured to approx 15 ft lbs each. This stud will need approx 1/2″ removed from the bottom (course thread) and then re-inserted.
Temp Sensors: They are 2 basic temp sensors; the head temp sensor and the engine temp sensor. These are basically the same sensor, but mounted in different locations on the engine. You will use either a Head Temp Sensor or Engine Temp Sensor, but not both.
Head Temp Sensor: Head Temp sensor is installed in the head near the exhaust manifold. This sensor has a ground wire and a lead wire that is routed through the metal/cooling tin and may need a grommet to prevent chaffing. Head Temp Sensor calibration data can be found in the software reference page. You can use this sensor for actual head temps, but you will need to modify the calibration. This type of sensor is for the non-turbo/140 engines that have the 3/8″ screw thread.
Engine Temp Sensor: The engine temp sensor is installed on engines that do not have the head temp sensor location available (ie: 140/Turbo, or you use this location for a temp gauge sensor), It is located to the shroud bolt hole sensor at the #4 cylinder location. The sensor uses an 3/8″ thread hex head, but care must be taken when installing not to damage the wires against as it is close to the TBI. It has an additional ground wire and should be connected to ground.
WARNING: Fuel components are under pressure (58 lbs) and can leak. Keep a watchful eye on all connections and pressure regulator as even new components can leak and will catch fire.
Installing Throttle Bodies: Throttle bodies are supplied and marked as Driver’s side (TPS) with the fuel inlet point to the front of the vehicle. Start with the outside stud/nut first and may require some lifting of the throttle body to start nut. The passengers side is installed with the Fuel inlet pointed to the front of the vehicle. There are no provisions to secure the air cleaner to the Throttle body as different
installations have different ideas. 61-63/Forward Control/Wagon: If you order with a FC/Wagon install, your throttle body will include knobs to insert the Hold down spring to the TBI. You will need to trim 1/8″ off the injector side of the spring so that it does not interfere with the injector and allow for free movement.
The Mechanical cold idle advance is adjusted in the same manner as the Corvair Carburetor except there is no choke butterfly valve. During cold temps, the Corvair spring pushes the Cam to open the throttle slightly which advances the idle. When the engine reaches approx 160F, the spring will pull the idle cam where it does not affect idle. The ECM senses the temp and adjusts the amount of fuel needed to maintain good operations during cold weather. This can be “tweaked” using the the Laptop/software to adjust the ECM. For engines equipped with an automatic transmission or AC, a idle control valve is used to help maintain proper idle during stops or prolonged idle.
Installing Inlet and Return Lines (Not provided): Fuel Lines should be routed down the tunnel (Car) and exit near the front of the vehicle. Care should be taken to ensure no moving parts come in contact with the lines and allow enough slack for rubber fuel line connection. The rubber hose will allow for movement of the engine as not to bend/break/vibrate steel line over time. Rubber Fuel Lines should be tightened, secured and located to prevent leaking or damage. Nipples should be placed on lines if you have the availability to ensure there is no slippage of the hose.
Trigger Wheel: The trigger wheel is designed to be bolted to the front of the Harmonic Balancer using 3/8″ bolts with a spacer between the HB and the trigger wheel. You can install the trigger wheel first then install the HB with the trigger wheel attached. If your HB is already installed on your engine, you can attached the trigger wheel without removing the HB. It is usually best to put the bolts, and spacers on the trigger wheel as to be installed and use light glue or heavy grease to hold the spacers in place until the bolts are tightened. The crank pulley used on early model and low HP models are attached to the provided bolt holes, but the spacers are not required. The trigger wheel is mounted with the engine at 0 degrees and the open slot at 50-60 degrees BTDC (to the left of the degree indicator).
Crank Sensor Bracket: (Except TSP Model) DO NOT ATTEMPT TO ADJUST WHILE ENGINE IS RUNNING or ROTATING. The crank sensor bracket allows the crank sensor to read the holes in the crank at the proper angle and out of the way of other components of the engine. This sensor mounts to the Delcotron fuel pump screw location and is slotted to allow for timing adjustment (8 degrees + or -). The Fuel pump block-off should be installed and the fuel pump screw needs to be cut at the pointed end . DO NOT OVER-TIGHTEN the fuel pump screw as it will crack the fuel pump tunnel and oil leakage will occur. The bracket should be fitted and level from the bottom of the Delcotron. The fuel pump screw should be tightened to about 5 foot lbs and the lock nut to approx 10lbs. Slithly bending or adding spacers should be used if the trigger wheel option is selected over the drilled harmonic balancer to align tip of crank sensor to the center of the trigger wheel.
Crank Sensor: (Except TSP Model) The crank sensor should be placed in the bracket and clearance is set with a hex head screw located on the side of the barrel. Clearance can be set with credit card, driver’s license or hotel key and secured in place with a set screw. DO NOT OVER-TIGHTEN this set screw as it will crack the sensor and make is useless. The Sensor bracket may be slightly bent to align properly over trigger wheel for best results. Broken sensors from over-tightening are NOT covered under warranty.
Fuel Pump/Tank (General): A high pressure fuel pump (Approx 40-60 psi) is required to operate the TBI fuel system. This system has its own built in fuel pressure regulator/filter that maintains a fuel pressure of approx. 58 PSI. GM production vehicles use an in-the-tank electric pump that is reasonably priced, but more difficult to install. Airtex has an externally mounted fuel pump for TBI units that can be located in the fuel line between the tank and engine. You will need to install the 5/16 fuel lines between the tank and engine area. You can use the existing fuel line as your return line and it should connect to the provided return Tee in the fuel neck assembly. Power is provided the a Red 14 gauge wire with connector and should be marked as fuel pump. Another import item to consider before you start is tank condition. Just because it hold fuel does not make it a good tank for EFI or no pressurized systems as rust is a constant in fuel tank and transfer that rust down the line. Unless your tank is recently new, we recommend using a tank sealer system, like POR-15 that cleans, preps and seals. One of the big reasons we don’t sell and warranty pumps is due to rust and sediment in tanks that will eventually ruin the pump.
Fuel Pump Internal: Bosch #69225 or equivalent should only be used. A new fuel sock , (Bosch #68001) is also required as any trash entering the pump will destroy it in short order. The sending unit must be modified with a bulkhead connector for the fuel pump and ground and can be accomplished with instructions from some Corvair websites for electric fuel pump conversion. This bulkhead connector from Revolution Electronics is recommended for an easy conversion.
Fuel Pump External: The Airtex E2000 or equivalent should only be used. This series of pump is a “rollervane” type pump. Do not use solenoid/diaphragm type pumps as these are cheaper, but will NOT provide the pressures needed that a HP pump produces. A new fuel tank is recommended, but if you use your used fuel tank, it should be free of dirt, rust and particles as these will destroy the pump. You can use the diaphragm type pump as a suction pump and then to the E2000 high pressure pump. We do not recommend external pumps due to noise.
Installing Engine Fuel Lines: The fuel lines to the TBIs are 1/4″ steel with double flare ends and connect to our fuel injector adapter. Normal amount of Torque is necessary to install the fuel lines to the Fuel “T” and normally tightened to where they will not leak. ALWAYS use fuel line wrenches and proper tools to prevent fuel leaks. The lines are pre-bent to accommodate routing, but can be bent slightly for ease of installation or customer preference.
Installing Fuel Return: We recommend to Braze a 5/16 tube into the fuel filler tube. After removal and brazing, it should be installed in a manner that will allow replacement/future removal through the fuel door slot. FC’s have a fuel return threaded hole in the tank, but the tank will have to be removed to attach the fitting and line. You can also epoxy (JB Weld) the 5/16″ steel tube into the filler tube, but it still needs to be removed from the vehicle while drilling.
Corvair TSP Distributor with built in module: This unit comes with a Vacuum advance and user configurable springs for different timing slopes. This is considered a “fuel only” install if used with Brown EFI or can be used as a stand-alone distributor as designed and a trigger wheel is NOT needed. Connect the distributor tach terminal to the Terminal located on the wiring harness with the “TSP” tag. A standard Corvair type (non-pin) spark plug wire is used on this distributor.
Pertronix: We have a way to fire your Pertronix II module or even leave your points in place and use the crank-fired trigger to supply RPM information to the ECM. You will not change any ignition components as the Distributor will perform all ignition functions. Timing is NOT ECM controlled with Pertronix or points setup and is the easiest path to convert to EFI (Fuel only). TSP and Pertronix/points installs are NOT controlled by the ECM, but have been tested by us to start and drive well.
Corvair Distributor: The Factory modified Corvair distributor has all the guts removed and locked down to be a ECM controlled distributor. Only the rotor and cap are necessary and all other components can be removed to extend life of the bearings. Phase the distributor at 20-24 degrees BTDC on the #1 plug wire and lock down with a 9/16″ wrench. Once the phase has been set, no other changes to the distributor should be made.
GM Smart Distributor-less Ignition (Smart DIS): This is the newest GM DIS which allows the coils to be controlled through logic signals supplied by the ECM. These are widely used on late model GM V6 engines and have an excellent durability record. The Smart (logic) DIS Coil Packs and older coil pack are not interchangeable. Smart DIS requires the use of a 36-1 trigger wheel which is included in the kit.
Spark Plug Wires (DIS): These special wires are already sized for your Corvair with the DIS module in the normal position. See the attached pics for suggested routing and ensure you protect the wires from scuffing as many moving parts. These are special made cables and are not available in different colors.
O2 Sensor Bung: Welding of the bung should be accomplished where the sensor will remain at least level or higher plane with ground to prevent accumulation of moisture in the sensor. On all exhaust systems, it is recommended that it be placed within a few inches of the exhaust log (we recommend the drivers side). Choose a location that the sensor not to bump or hit other components during suspension travel. The O2 sensor must be close enough to the hot exhaust stream to produce feedback even during cold days at idle. Moving the sensor too far away from the exhaust log or exhaust leaks will cause inaccurate readings and may damage engine. (lean condition).
O2 Sensors: Your O2 sensor should start producing signal within 30 sec of starting and should be located within a few inches of the exhaust log. If you plan to place the sensor farther away, it may not work properly due to lack of heat. A heated sensor can be installed which produces it own heat and reads regardless of distance from the exhaust log. This sensor has a standard connector should be connected to the matching O2 sensor plug on the wiring harness. Dual O2 sensors (Wide or Narrow Band) can be connected to the system, but will need to be special ordered at a reasonable cost. Use of a wideband sensor is encouraged for those wanting to tune their EFI to the next step but, will need certain items changed in the program, so please contact tech support (All widebands are internally heated). You can use a narrowband O2 sensor to tune your engine, but it only accurately reads 14.7:1 AFR so other areas would be guessing.
ECM: Under ECM control, the fuel pump will operate for 5 seconds when the ignition is turned on. It will resume operating when you start to crank the engine, and continue running when the engine starts. ECM uses the sensors and programmed info to run the engine at near best performance. Normally the engine will go closed loop after the oxygen sensor reaches 600 deg F. With all of the above connections made, your engine should start right up.
Wiring Harness: Your wiring harness has been produced using all new parts and all connections have been soldered/shrink or use GM/Packard crimp tools and connectors. Ends have been marked with stick-on tags to add in installation. Relays and relay holders are 30/40 amp 5 pin standard and available at any parts store electrical shelf. If you remove the relay for test, etc… pay particular attention when re-inserting the relay not to push the relay connector from the bottom of connector housing with may cause failure or intermittent failures.
Battery wire: The Red 14 AWG wire must be connected to a fused 12VDC constant battery source
Switched wire: The orange 18 awg wire marked “switched 12V” should be connected to a switched (12-V with key on and 0-V with key off). If you use the existing resistor coil wire, you must tap very close (within 2″) to prevent voltage reduction. The ECM and relays must have 12V from the switched wire.
Ground wires: Ground ring terminals are provided for grounding. The main ground is to be connected to the head near the #6 piston location and head temp sensor ground is secured outside the engine bay. Relay and coil grounds are to be connected to a known good ground (engine) that will not work lose over time. Additional ground wires are provided on the DIS and Logic coil version of the kit. Grounds are very important to the proper operation and life of the system.
Zero and Balance Throttle Bodies: Disconnect throttle rod on passengers side and unscrew idle stop until removed on passenger side. Back off Idle screw on drivers side until it no longer touches idle stop. This is base zero on both throttle bodies and is the alignment point. Adjust the throttle rod where both TBIs stay at “base zero. Adjust the drivers side idle stop approx 3/16” that will support running during idle.
Timing too high outside of manual adjustment: Because each engine is different, timing can be adjusted by laptop. Moving of the distributor after phasing will require you to start over again. If your engine pings after after adjustment, Call Technical support with your results for a replacement tune or you can adjust the ECM with a laptop and free software. You should be using premium fuel for testing any new engine.
Idle Air Control Valve: Without mounting the IAC Valve directly the to intake manifold, The idle control valve does not create as large of a vacuum leak as needed to facilitate cold engine starts. We are using the mechanical cold idle advance in conjunction with the idle control valve on automatic transmission models.
A/C Option: This ECM supports A/C operation with the Electronic idle control valve. Because the idle control valve has to first sense the load, the react (creating a vacuum leak), this can take time and may allow a rough idle or stall until the idle control system corrects it. We recommend putting a solenoid into the vacuum system that will create a leak when the A/C system’s clutch is energized. The will create an immediate leak and allow the idle control circuit to catch up and stabilize the idle.
Forward Control/Wagon: . If you use a harmonic balancer on this engine, you will not be able to use the bolt-on timing wheel unless the bracket is shimmed or a 64 rear engine bracket is used. You may also need to trim back the bracket “pan” to insure yon can install the cooling best without interference. The timing wheel will work on the low horsepower pulley, but will NOT use the spacers in timing wheel kit.
Idle: 750-800 – Balance TBIs by using “just closed”, adjust throttle rod between the TBIs and then open idle screw until smooth idle achieved in Neutral.
Spark Plugs: .35-.40 gap
Timing: Call Brown Injection for correction.
Fuel: Premium is recommended for all Corvairs, but mid-grade may give good performance at lower cost.
Check Timing with a Timing Light: During warm idle, GM mark on harmonic balancer should align with bolt within 6 degrees either side. Timing will be moving back and forth approx 6 degrees as the ECM using the timing and IAC motors to maintain idle speed. Center of bolt is approx 26 degrees and would emulate a running distributor w/vacuum advanced connected.
Make sure you have a good starter. A starter that misses engagement spins a creates a high frequency signal across the entire vehicle. The ECM may sense that signal as engine RPM and will start injecting fuel and cause a flood situation. On EFI, if a flooding situation ever occurs, press the accelerator to the floor (past 70%) and this will stop of flow of fuel while cranking.
Normal Readings/observations to be used as a guide
• Timing – Approx 20 degrees at idle
• MAP Sensor kpa – 50 @ idle out of gear 60 in drive (+-10)
• Head Temp Cold – approx ,80 degrees
• Head Temp Hot – approx 220 degrees
• Fuel pump will run for 5 seconds after key on
• Fuel pump pressure for TBI is 58 (+-5) lbs
• Crank sensor to Harmonic Balancer .030″ – .050″
Troubleshooting (EFI system only):
We recommend a a Laptop running Tunerstudio software (Free) and a Diagnostic Cable (included with kit) before you start troubleshooting!!! It will drastically reduce your troubleshooting time. MOST ISSUES OF THE EFI ARE CAUSED BY VACUUM LEAKS OR LOW/NO COMPRESSION.
Engine will not start:
• Does ECM have Power? Switched and battery?
• Do Relay’s Click and transfer power? (Use voltmeter lead under relay housing)
• Does the Fuel Pump run for 5 Seconds then turn off?
• Does the fuel pump have a minimum of 60lbs of pressure when energized? • Check Crank Sensor
• Does the DIS spark when engine is cranked?
• Check Relay system
• Check Relay ground
• Check switch power and ground to relay system
• Check 12V Battery to Relays
• *Check RPMs register when cranking
• Use jumper to Test power with relays removed
Hard Starting (Eventually Starts/runs):
• Fuel Pump Failure – Check Static Pressure
• Fuel Pressure Regulator Failure (Check running Pressure)
• *MAP Sensor disconnected/malfunction (also check vacuum line)
• 1 of the 2 injectors disconnected
Extreme Rough Idle:
• plug wire disconnected
• Injector Connector disconnected
• Vacuum Leak
• Idle motor malfunction
• Mechanical Idle Advance Binding
No Power when Accelerator is pressed:
• TPS disconnected (*Rotate to verify 0-100%)
• MAP sensor disconnected/malfunction (*Should read 100% with engine not running)
• Low fuel pump pressure (less than 60 lbs)
• Injector Connector disconnected
Appears to be running extremely rich:
• Low MAP sensor vacuum
• Engine Temp sensor failure (If engine not reaching operating temp (>180f), remove connector from temp sensor (this will put indicate 180 degrees for testing)
• High fuel pressure/Return line blocked/Lines Reversed
• Timing low
May engine will not turn off when key off position is selected:
• Relay is being powered through “Gen” light and needs Diode installed
No spark on on Cyl 5 & 6. (Smart DIS ONLY)
• The TPS/MAP uses the same Vref +5 that Smart DIS uses to fire Cyls 5 & 6. If the TPS/MAP shorts or malfunctions, then these Cyl may not fire until the TPS/MAP issue is resolved. Use Tunerstudio to diagnose TPS/MAP.
*Computer needed for Diagnosis
Wiring Diagnostic Notes:
Power to Relay #1 & #2: (Power Feed to both Relays are from Battery 12VDC wire)
Power to ECM/Relay #1: Switched 12VDC Powers ECM and activates Relay #1
Power to Fuel Pump #2: Switched 12VDC Powers Relay #2 and activated by ground from ECM.
The Main Red wire provides 12VDC to the rear terminals of the relay block. Switched power energizes the ECM and terminal #1. The #1 relay provides power to all injectors, DIS/Coil and idle control valve. The #2 relay 12VDC (+) is provided by the switched 12VDC, but the ground (which energizes relay #2) is provided by the ECM. If the ECM does not receive RPM information within 5 secs after initial power is applied, the #2 (Fuel Pump) relay will be disengaged and power to fuel pump will cease.
Brown Injection Systems, LLC. assumes no responsibility for the function or suitability to task of any kit or parts. This kit and parts are DIY (Do it yourself) parts to aid you in the installation of fuel Injection of the Corvair. Brown Injection Systems, LLC. Warranties this product against manufacturing defects for the period of 90 days from date of shipping. This warranty covers all parts, but does not cover outside labor to diagnose or repair without specific prior approval from Brown Injection Systems, LLC. This warranty does not cover any failures caused by misuse, accidents, or shipping incidents. Warranty failures will be repaired or replaced at the discretion of Brown Injection Systems, LLC. and has the final decision. Any damages that may have occurred during shipping should be reported immediately to the shipper and not Brown Injection Systems, LLC., Inc. Brown Injection Systems, LLC is not responsible for any damages to equipment and possible liability injury that could result from use of the product. Brown Injection Systems, LLC. Maximum total liability under any conditions is the repair or replacement of the product.
PART TROUBLESHOOTING: If you feel a part is malfunctioning and needs to be replaced, we will do so with the following guidelines: 1) Troubleshooting is provided for 90 days after shipping date, 2) Send part to us, we will test and if part if found defective, we will give you a credit for future parts purchase at the lowest shipping rate (Fedex) to us. If part is not found defective, you will be invoiced for actual shipping costs incurred by us.
PRODUCT RETURN POLICY: Most products can be returned for credit within 30 days of shipping. All returns must be as new for maximum credit and free of modification and scratches. A 15% restocking charge will apply to any returned parts except for failure. All returns shipping must be prepaid. If you paid using paypal, we will deduct the transaction costs from any refund.
TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE: Technical assistance over the telephone can be obtained from Brown Injection Systems, LLC. at 864-617-1776 between the hours of 9:30AM and 6:00PM Eastern Standard Time. We may be assisting others, so leave a message and you will receive a call back.
“Brown fuel injection system is designed for off-road use only”
Revised: Dec 18